Basic Medical Research Award
Ernst Ruska and James Hillier
For their major contribution to the design, construction, development and perfection of the electron microscope.
The modern electron microscope has extended the range of human vision to objects several hundred times smaller than those which can be seen with the light microscope. It has revealed structure where none could be seen previously and where little was thought to exist.
This remarkably precise scientific instrument, the potential resolving power of which is still to be fully realized, has produced a broad reawakening of interest in the fine structure of biological material and has demonstrated the existence of order in dimensions which previously were invisible.
For their major contribution to the design, construction, development and perfection of the electron microscope which led to the creation of a unique and much used research instrument, this joint award is gratefully presented to Dr. Ernst Ruska and Dr. James Hillier.
James Neel and L.S. Penrose
For laying the foundation for the rapid development of research in human genetics; and, specifically, to Dr. Neel for his work on thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
One of the great pioneers of modern human genetics, L.S. Penrose has played a major role in laying the foundations for the rapid development of this branch of science during recent years, as its general importance to medicine has been recognized. Beginning 30 years ago with an interest in the heredity of mental disease, he conducted a long series of researches which culminated in a classic publication, "The Biology of Mental Defect," which is not only an extraordinarily comprehensive survey of the etiology of mental deficiency but also an outstanding treatise on human genetics.
Professor Penrose and his associates have been responsible over the years for studies which touch all aspects of human genetics, including genetic analyses of most of the known hereditary diseases, contributions to mathematical genetics, biochemical genetics, the study of gene linkage in man, and theoretical work on the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation. Most recently, their attention has been turned to abnormalities of human chromosomes associated with congenital defects, particularly mongolism.
Throughout this career, Professor Penrose has been a source of inspiration and guidance to many younger workers in his field who have come to the Galton Laboratory at University College for training and who are now pushing forward the frontiers of human genetics in many parts of the world. His work, both as an investigator and as a teacher, represents an important contribution to knowledge in the life sciences; it has brought an increased understanding of the complex interactions between heredity and environment which underlie human disease and has led to the development of conceptual schemes which have stimulated new and fruitful investigations in medicine.
After a brief career in zoology, James Neel entered medical school and completed his training in internal medicine in 1946. Since that time he has risen to a pre-eminent position in the field of human genetics, and, as Professor of Human Genetics and Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan, he symbolizes the recognition in this country of the great importance of genetics as a branch of medical science.
His work on two important diseases of the bloodthalassemia and sickle cell anemiademonstrated conclusively that genetic principles are applicable to the study of many major diseases and not just to elucidation of the inheritance of bizarre anatomical or metabolic abnormalities. By the use of simple laboratory tools for recognition of the minor abnormalities exhibited by the carriers of abnormal genes, he was able to prove that the classical disease, sickle cell anemia, was the clinical expression of the abnormal gene in the homozygous offspring of parents, each of whom manifested the sickle cell trait. This fundamental contribution was independently confirmed in the brilliant work of Pauling and his associates upon the chemistry and inheritance of human hemoglobins.
In addition to this and several other important contributions to our knowledge of the operation of genetic mechanisms in human diseases, Dr. Neel's work with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Japan has made him one of the world's outstanding authorities on the genetic effects of ionizing radiation in man. The continuing observations in Japan, based upon his careful theoretical formulations of the extraordinarily difficult problems involved in drawing valid conclusions from data collected in a large population group, have assured mankind that maximal information for its future guidance in the peaceful development of nuclear energy will be extracted from the horrors of atomic warfare.
M.H.F. Wilkins, Francis Crick and James Watson
For their contribution in revealing the structure of the DNA model.
Literally scores of investigatorswho, as is our custom, are likely to remain largely unsunghave performed many ingenious experiments over the years which have led to widespread recognition of the fact that DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is one of the principal elements in the metabolic processes of cells and that it plays a leading role in the transmission of inheritable characteristics. This demonstration of the biological significance of DNA has served to stimulate research directed at determining the structure of this important molecule. Here, too, many investigators have contributed significantly to "setting the stage" for the conduct of the particular research for which this citation is given.
The painstaking X-ray diffraction studies of M.H.F. Wilkins provided a most important clue which was pursued in an ingenious fashion and to a logical conclusion by Francis Crick and J.D. Watson to the end that the structure of the DNA molecule was revealed. Even though the structure described may be altered subsequently to some extent, it will nevertheless serve as a substantial contribution to a better understanding of the location of specific genetic information and of the means by which replication and mutation of genes may take place.
The research of Wilkins, Crick, and Watson has provided a firm foundation for many advances in man's fight against the ravages of disease that will surely follow this enlightened discovery.